MAC Changer v1.1




MAC Changer is a free tool which can be use to change or spoof MAC Address instantly.

The Source code of the tool is also available, which is written in Python and can be further use. This tool is licensed under GNU, General Public License v3.0. Make sure you read the license before using its source code.

MAC Changer supports Linux/Debian Platform only.

How to use:

  • Convert the setup.sh into executable.
    • chmod 755 setup.sh
  • Run setup.sh
    • ./setup.sh
  • Convert the file (mac_changer) into executable by typing the command in terminal:
    • chmod u+x mac_changer
  • Run the installer
    • ./mac_changer

Available Arguments:

  • -h or --help: Displays all the available options.
  • -i or --interface: This option needs to be used as to define for which interface you want to change the MAC address. Example: ./mac_changer -i <interface_name>
  • -m or --mac: Optional. Can be used to specify a MAC Address. Example: ./mac_changer -i <interface_name> -m <mac>
**NOTE -
  • If -m or --mac option is not defined, the program will use Random MAC Address Generation Algorithm.
  • Random MAC Address Generation Algorithm will always generate a uni-cast mac address.
  • Check the Video at the bottom, for full tutorial on How to Use.

Color Significance:

  • Green: Successful.
  • Yellow: In process.
  • White: MAC Address.
  • Red: Unsuccessful or Errors.

To Download the tool, Click here:




Check Change MAC Address in Kali Linux, if you want to learn how to change it manually.
Check Rules for changing MAC Address, if you want to learn about MAC Address. 

**NOTE - If you encounter can error while use the tool. Download the setup.sh file and run it via terminal with this command: /setup.sh

Video Tutorial 

 

We hope this helps. If any suggestions or doubts you can add a comment and we will reply as soon as possible.

MAC Changer is a free tool which can be use to change or spoof MAC Address instantly. The Source code of the tool...

Change MAC Address in Kali Linux


Learn how to change MAC Address using terminal without using any software.

Media Access Control Address (MAC Address):
  • Permanent
  • Physical
  • Unique
  • Assigned by manufacturer
Why change the MAC address?
  • Increase anonymity
  • Impersonate other devices
  • Bypass filters
To change the MAC address you first need to open the terminal in Kali Linux. For the demonstration, we are using Wi-Fi Adapter Alfa AWUS036NHA
  • Check the name of the Network Device using the command ifconfig. In our case it is wlan0.












**NOTE - The name of the Network Device is case-sensitive
  • Disable your network card using the command:
    • Syntax: ifconfig <network_device_name> down
    • Example: ifconfig wlan0 down
  • Change the MAC address using the command: 
    • Syntax: ifconfig <network_device_name> hw ether <new_mac>
    • Example: ifconfig wlan0 hw ether e4:22:33:44:55:66
  • Enable your network card using the command:
    • Syntax: ifconfig <network_device_name> up
    • Example: ifconfig wlan0 up





If you want to know the rules for MAC Address, Check the Rules for changing MAC Address -  Click here
  • You can check if it's changed or not using the command:
    • Syntax: ifconfig <network_device_name>
    • Example: ifconfig wlan0

If you want this all to be done automatically by typing one command you can use MAC CHANGER, a command-line software for Debian/Linux distribution exclusively made by us.

We hope this helps. If any suggestions or doubts you can add a comment and we will reply as soon as possible.

Learn how to change MAC Address using terminal without using any software. Media Access Control Address (MAC Addres...

Rules for changing MAC Address


Media Access Control (MAC) is permanent, unique, and assigned by the manufacturer. Spoofing or 'changing' MAC address helps you:
  • Increase anonymity, 
  • Impersonate other devices and 
  • Bypass filters
(If you do not want to understand the reason behind changing the MAC skip to the last section Summary)

MAC Address is divided into two parts as shown in the image above. It defines:
  • Organizationally Unique Identifier: First 3-octets defines the organization or the manufacturer of that device. If you search for MAC Address Lookup websites and type the values of the first three octets. You will get the information about who manufactured that device.
  • Network Interface Controller Specific: Last 3-octets tells you about a specific device of that manufacturer. 
By combining both the parts we get a unique address.

For the purpose of spoofing, we need to take care of two things. For the sake of explanation, suppose our MAC Address is E2:22:33:44:55:66.
 
We just need to focus on the 1st octet i.e. E2. These values are hexadecimal, for better explanation lets convert it into binary which is 11000010. Here we need to understand the last two bits b1 and b0 (as per the diagram above).
  • b1: Well actually for spoofing the MAC Address we really don't care about this part as far as you want to change it to any random MAC. But here it's 1 which means the device is used for the local administrator. If you change it to 0, means your MAC will be organizationally or globally unique.
  • b0: This part is most important for spoofing. In general, we need this part to be 0. As in our example, 0 means it will be unicast (sends data or query to only one entity). If you change it to 1 (which is generally not possible for Wi-Fi Adapters) it means it will be multicast (sends data or query to more than one entity).
 
Summary: [ Possible Values: {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F} (case-insensitive) ]
  • If you just want to change it to a random and valid MAC address. Type anything from the above possible values. Two values together (forms an octet), six octets in total, separated by ':' (colon). Make sure the second value of the first octet is even or {A, C, E}. For example: (where x can be replaced by any values from the possible values set)
    • x0:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx 
    • x2:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx 
    • x4:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx 
    • x6:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx 
    • x8:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx 
    • xa:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx 
    • xc:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx 
    • xe:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx
  • If you want to change the MAC address so as it looks like from a specific Organization or Company, then search the values for the first three octets from here mac-vendor-list. Example: X:yy:yy:yy 
    • X: Search the company name using Ctrl + F in here mac-vendor-list. (make sure to add a colon after two values)
    •  y: Can be anything from the possible value set mentioned above.

Check How to Change MAC Address in Kali Linux - Click here
Or use our tool to change MAC Changer v1.1 - Click here

We hope this helps. If any suggestions or doubts you can add a comment and we will reply as soon as possible.

Media Access Control (MAC) is permanent, unique, and assigned by the manufacturer. Spoofing or 'changing' MAC add...

Create Wordlist for Brute Force Attack

A wordlist is a text file containing a collection of words for use in a dictionary attack. We will be using crunch for creating wordlist in Kali Linux. To create a wordlist, you need to have Kali Linux OS. Note: This article is only for educational purpose. 

  • To Install Kali Linux in VM - Click Here
  • Open Terminal or Terminator.
  • Check for updates using sudo apt update command.Them,
  • Syntax:

crunch [min] [max] [characters] -o [filename]

    • min: Define integer saying minimum number of characters in a word.
    • max: Define integer saying maximum number of characters in a word.
    • characters: Define characters which will be used to create all the combination with that words, under the defined minimum and maximum length.
    • filename: Define name of the file which will be your output file name followed by .txt.
  • For Example, creating a wordlist using the letters which can be used to create word hackhunt with all the possible combination with minimum 8 letters and maximum 10 letters and save it to a file name wordlist.txt.

crunch 8 10 hkcantu -o wordlist.txt

  • If you want to create all the possible combination with certain patterns, you can add -t [pattern].
  • For example, creating a wordlist with all the possible mobile numbers (10-digit) starting from 9 and save it to a wordlist.txt (this wordlist can be used to hack Wi-Fi, as most of Indians have some kind of mobile number as Wi-Fi Password and most of them starts from 9)

crunch 10 10 1234567890 -t 9@@@@@@@@@ -o wordlist.txt

**NOTE -
  • You can do man crunch, to check all the available options.
Continue with this wordlist to hack WiFi - Coming Soon..

We hope this helps. If any suggestions or doubts you can add a comment and we will reply as soon as possible.

A wordlist is a text file containing a collection of words for use in a dictionary attack. We will be using ...

Zenmap Installation Guide



Zenmap is the official Nmap Security Scanner GUI. It is a multi-platform (Linux, Windows, Mac OS X, BSD, etc.) free and open-source application which aims to make Nmap easy for beginners to use while providing advanced features for experienced Nmap users. A command creator allows interactive creation of Nmap command lines.

Scan results can be saved and viewed later. Saved scan results can be compared with one another to see how they differ. The results of recent scans are stored in a searchable database.

Unfortunately, Zenmap is no longer being part of Kali Linux pre-installed software. No worries, we are here to help you with the installation guide.
  • Download Zenmap from here. (Optional Zenmap GUI, under Linux RPM section)
  • Or you can type the following command in terminal. 
wget https://nmap.org/dist/zenmap-7.80-1.noarch.rpm
  • We need to convert .rpm file to a .deb using Alien. To install alien sudo apt install alien -y.
  • After installation type, sudo alien <file_nmae> i.e. 
sudo alien zenmap-7.80-1.noarch.rpm
  • Install the zenmap using dpkg. Type the following command in terminal.
sudo dpkg -i zenmap_7.80-2_all.deb

Video Tutorial


We hope this helps. If any suggestions or doubts you can add a comment and we will reply as soon as possible.

Zenmap is the official Nmap Security Scanner GUI. It is a multi-platform (Linux, Windows, Mac OS X, BSD, etc.) free and open-sour...

Remotely access your PC using any device


Chrome Remote Desktop is a remote desktop software tool developed by Google that allows a user to remotely control another computer through a proprietary protocol developed by Google unofficially called "Chromoting". It transmits the keyboard and mouse events from one computer to another, relaying the graphical screen updates back in the other direction, over a network. This feature therefore consists of a server component, for the host computer, and a client component on the computer accessing the remote computer.
**NOTE - 
  • You should have active internet connection on your computer and device.
  • Your computer should be switched on (you cannot switch on your computer using remote access).

Video Tutorial


We hope this helps. If any suggestions or doubts you can add a comment and we will reply as soon as possible.

Chrome Remote Desktop is a remote desktop...

Set Root Account and Change Password in Kali




With Kali Linux 2020.1 update. Developers of Kali switched the default login to a non-root user. If you installed the Kali Linux (Virtual Machine Version), the default non-root user account is kali and the password is kali as well. But if you install the Kali Linux, on installation the setup will ask for username and password.

Having a non-root user account is not a problem, you just need to add sudo command in the beginning of all the tools which requires root access like nmap.

According to the developers and we quote, "Dropping this default root policy will thus simplify maintenance of Kali and will avoid problems for end-users."
But a lot of users still don't care about security and want a root access login account. Follow the steps below:

  • Open Terminal, type sudo -i, and enter the password for current account.
  • To change the password or set a new password, type
    • Syntax: passwd <username>
    • Example: passwd root
  • Set the Password and Confirm it.
  • Now, you can log in with the root username, and the password you just created.
  • To go back to the non-root user account. Type, logout.

Video Tutorial


We hope this helps. If any suggestions or doubts you can add a comment and we will reply as soon as possible.

With Kali Linux 2020.1 update. Developers of Kali switched the default login to a non-root user. If you installed the Kali Linu...

List of Common Network Port


Most Common protocols that use network ports are provided by the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) at the Transport layer. Ports are identified for each protocol and address combination by 16-bit unsigned numbers, commonly known as the port number.

Ports allow a single host with a single IP address to run network services. Each port number identifies a distinct service, and each host can have 65535 ports per IP address. Port use is regulated by the Internet Corporation for Assigning Names and Numbers (ICANN). By ICANN there are three categories for ports.

  • 0 to 1023: Well Know ports
  • 1024 to 49152: Registered Ports assigned to a specific service.
  • 49153 to 65535: Dynamic or Private ports, can be use for other services.
 Port Service
Transport
Protocol
 20, 21
 File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
 TCP
 22  Secure Shell (SSH)
 TCP and UDP
23  Telnet
 TCP
25
 Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)  TCP
 51  Internet Message Protocol (IPSec)
 -
 53  Domain Name System (DNS)
 TCP and UDP
 67, 68
 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) 
 UDP
 69  Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)  UDP
 80  HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
 TCP
 110  Post Office Protocol (POP3)  TCP
 119  Network News Transport Protocol (NNTP)  TCP
 123  Network Time Protocol (NTP)  UDP
 137-139  NetBIOS  TCP and UDP
143
 Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP4)  TCP and UDP
161, 162
 Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)  TCP and UDP
 389  Lightweight Directory Access Protocol  TCP and UDP
 443  HTTP with Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)  TCP and UDP
 3389  Remote Desktop Protocol  TCP and UDP
  • (Windows User) To check all the ports defined by IANA.
  • Go to the directory: C:\Windows\System32\drivers\etc.
  • Open the services file in Internet Explorer.
We hope this helps. If any suggestions or doubts you can add a comment and we will reply as soon as possible.

Most Common protocols that use network ports are provided by the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the User Data...

Windows Essential 2012 (Offline)

This is especially for the offline users of Windows 7 or above. Who wants to install some of the windows features? Windows Essentials 2012 installation enable the following feature in your PC:

  • Messenger
  • Mail
  • Photo Gallery
  • Movie Maker
  • Writer
  • Sync
  • Family Safety
We hope this helps. If any suggestions or doubts you can add a comment and we will reply as soon as possible.

This is especially for the offline users of Windows 7 or above. Who wants to install some of the windows features? Windows E...

Bios Key for every Brand


Computers of different brands have their own boot menu keys and BIOS keys. Different with keys: “Del”, “F2”, “F12”(common BIOS keys) and “F12”(common boot menu key), the keys of HP computers are special.
Inside the BIOS you can change many basic computer settings, like the boot order, system time and date, or enabled hardware components. That’s why the BIOS (basic input/output system) is also known as “Setup”.

Brand
Bios Settings
Boot Menu
APPLE
DEL/F2/F9
OPTION KEY
ASUS
F9/DEL/F2
F8/ESC
ACER
DEL/F2
F12/ESC/F9
COMPAQ
F10
ESC/F9
DELL
F2
F12
HP
F10
F9/ESC
HP(generic)
F1/F10/ESC
ESC/F9
HUAWEI-MATEBOOK
F2
F12
IBALL  
DEL/F2
F7
INTEL
F2
F10
LENOVO
F1/F2
F12/F8/F10
LG
F2
F10
MICROSOFT SURFACE
HOLD VOLUME UP-THEN PRESS AND RELEASE POWER BUTTON
NEC
F2
F5
PACKARD BELL
F1/DEL
F8
PANASONIC
F2
FN+F5
SONY
F1/F2/F3
F10
SAMSUNG
F2
F12/ESC
TOSHIBA
ESC/F1/F12
F12/ESC
VAIO
F2
F11
XIAOMI
F2
F11

We hope this helps. If any suggestions or doubts you can add a comment and we will reply as soon as possible.

Computers of different brands have their own boot menu keys and BIOS keys. Different with keys: “Del”, “F2”, “F12”(c...

Remove windows.old folder


Why and how windows.old folder is created?
When you install Windows 10 on a PC and if it previously had Windows 7 or 8 installed or if you’re going to perform a custom installation of Windows 10 or going to upgrade, after the installation is complete you will have a folder called Windows.old in your C:\ directory.

This also happens when you Repair, Upgrade, or do a Custom Install without a format or delete of partition before a fresh install.
If you’re performing a custom installation, as long as you don’t format that partition during the installation process of any of the previous versions of Windows, all your data and files from your previous version of Windows are stored in the C:\windows.old folder and can be use to restore.

This can be helpful if you want to recover data from that folder, but remember if your wipe, format or delete the partitions for clean installation of Windows the folder windows.old will NOT be kept.

But windows.old folder takes more than 30 GB of space, here is way to delete the folder.

  • At the bottom under Search Bar, search for Disk Cleanup and click on Open.

  • Select the drive which has windows.old folder and click on OK (in our case it is C drive).
  • Click on Clean up system files at the left bottom.
  • Select the same drive again and click on OK
**NOTE - Wait for a while it takes time to appear or scan the drive, just be patient.
  • Check all the boxes except the folders which has Download name in it as it may delete what you have in Downloads folder.
  • After checking all boxes, click on OK.
  • Wait till the process finish and the windows.old folder will be deleted.
**NOTE - If you get any warning click OK as it says that you cannot be able to restore to previous version of windows.

Video Tutorial


We hope this helps. If any suggestions or doubts you can add a comment and we will reply as soon as possible.

Why and how windows.old folder is created? ...

Fix Runtime Error using CMD


You may encounter runtime error in various cases. If you are getting a message something like this or like this which says Runtime Error! anyhow. Don't worry, just follow these easy steps and it will solve your problem.
  • Open Command Prompt as administrator privileges. 
  • To open command prompt press Windows Key and type cmd. Right click the command prompt search result and choose Run as Administrator.
  • Type sfc /scannow and hit enter.
  • The process will scan your system for errors and will fix it. 
**NOTE - This process can take up-to an hour so be patient.
  • After the process finishes. If there is any error which was fixed, then you may see this kind of message.
  • If there is no error found, then the system will give you a message like Windows Resource Protection did not find any integrity violations. If this is the case and you are still getting Runtime Error, comment below or mail us the issue we will help you.

Video Tutorial


We hope this helps. If any suggestions or doubts you can add a comment and we will reply as soon as possible.

You may encounter runtime error in various cases. If you are getting a message something like this or like...